1.1 Grid certificates

FGCI, like most of the middleware based grid environments, uses personal X.509 certificates for user authentication. In this approach the users doesn't need a personal user accounts in the cluster they are using. This means also that CSC user account is not necessary for FGCI usage.

Certificate requests need to be signed by a Certification Authority (CA) which acts as a trusted third party. CSC is using G√ČANT Trusted Certificate Service (TCS) as the authority to provide Finnish academic grid users with personal e-science grid user certificates. The certificates will be requested through the DigiCert SSO portal, which automatically installs in the certificate to users web browser. The certificates are valid for one year at a time.

The user logs on to the DigiCert SSO portal using their HAKA credentials (username and password in most cases). To be able to log in, your Identity Provider ( i.e. home university or institute) most must be compatible with eduGAIN service. If the name of your home institute is not recognized by the DigiCert SSO portal (Finnish, Swedish and English institute names should be recognized) that means that your home institute is not compatible with the eduGAIN service. In this case you can still request a personal certificate from Nordugrid: Personal Nordugrid certificate.


1.1.1 Obtaining a grid certificate from GEANT

Please ONLY use your personal computer for obtaining your grid certificate as your grid certificate will be stored into the browser you are using for obtaining the certificate. Chrome is not compatible with the Digicert service so you should use Firefox or Explorer to get a certificate.Here are the step-by-step instructions for obtaining your own certificate:

  1. Go to https://www.digicert.com/sso 

  2. Enter the name of your home institute (Finnish, Swedish and English institute names are recognized) and press "Start single sign-on"

  3. Login using your HAKA username and password (a HAKA account is created by your home organization, not by CSC. Typically this is the user account you use to log in to local university network)

  4. In the "Request  Product" page, choose product: Grid Premium, check your information and press "Request Certificate"

Now you have your certificate in the keystore of your browser, signed by DigiCert and ready for use.


1.1.2 Exporting the certificate from the browser

After obtaining the certificate from TERENA, the certificate is initially stored only in the certificate repository of the web browser that was used for the certificate generation process. To use your certificate for grid jobs you need to export your certificate to a certificate file. The location of the certificate repository and commands that export the certificate to a file vary between browsers (even between different versions of the same browser). Your browser may contain several certificates, many of which are used to verify other web service providers. Normally you can recognize your personal TERENA certificate based on the certificate name that should contain your name or e-mail address.

Below are instructions for exporting the certificate from a few commonly used browsers.


  1. Select: Edit -> Preferences (in Linux) or Tools -> Options (in Windows) or Firefox -> Preferences ( In Mac)

  2. Go to Advanced -> Encryption -> View Certificates

  3. Select your certificate and click Backup

  4. Save the certificate as "usercert.p12". The browser will ask you for your password, along with an export password. You MUST have a password here, you may not backup the certificate without a password!


  1. Select Menu -> Settings -> Preferences

  2. Go to Advanced -> Security -> Manage Certificates

  3. Select your certificate and click Export

  4. Choose the "PKCS #12 (with private key)" file type, and save the certificate as "usercert.p12". The browser will ask you for your password, along with an export password. You MUST have a password here, you may not export the certificate without a password!


  1. Open Settings (Under the Wrench)

  2. Click Show advanced settings

  3. Click the Manage certificates button in the HTTPS/SSL sections

  4. Select a certificate to export

  5. Click "Export" and save the certificate as "usercert.p12"

  6. The browser will ask you for your password, along with an export password. You MUST have a password here, you may not export the certificate without a password!

1.1.3 Installing certificate

Browsers normally store the certificates using the PKCS12 format. However, for the ARC middleware uses PEM as the default certificate format. The following commands do PKCS12-PEM  conversion on Linux machines. If you will use the grid tools on a different machine than that which your browser is on, you can transfer the usercert.p12 file to that machine, and run the following commands there. It's suggested that you use a secure tool like scp to do this. Optionally, you can use the My Certificates tool, introduced in section 1.1.4, to do the conversion and transport.

The PEM formatted certificate consists of two files: private key file (userkey.pem) and certificate file (usercert.pem). The certificate private key is created with the command:

openssl pkcs12 -nocerts -in usercert.p12 -out userkey.pem

When executed, this command will ask for the old and the new key passwords (they can be the same). The user certificate file is created with the command :

openssl pkcs12 -clcerts -nokeys -in usercert.p12 -out usercert.pem

The commands above should have created two files, usercert.pem and userkey.pem. To use the ARC middleware these two files should be moved into a .globus sub-directory under the user's home directory (note the dot as the first character of the directory name). If the .globus directory does not exist, it can be created with the command:

mkdir ~/.globus/

After this, the certificate files can be moved to the .globus directory with the commands:

cp usercert.pem ~/.globus/
cp userkey.pem ~/.globus/

Finally, make sure that the access permissions of the userkey.pem file are set up correctly. The command to ensure this is:

chmod 400 ~/.globus/userkey.pem

1.1.4 Managing certificates in the Scientist's User Interface

CSC's Scientist's User Interface (SUI) service contains a My Certificates tool that can be used to manage X.509 certificates. The My Certificates tool provides a machine independent certificate repository that can be used for backing up and copying certificates from one machine to another. My Certificates can also do conversions between different certificate formats. The My Certificates tool can be found at


When you use this service for the first time you need to set up a password that this certificate repository will use. This is done by right-clicking the repository and selecting: Security Settings from the pop-up menu. This repository password is not linked technically to other passwords like CSC, SUI or certificate passwords.

Once the repository password has been defined, certificates can be imported to the repository. This is done by right clicking the empty certificate menu and selecting: Upload. The My Certificates tool can read in certificates in PEM and PKCS12 formats. For example to import the usercet.p12 file, created with the commands used in chapter 1.1.2, the Select file format setting must be changed to PKCS12. The import process is then started by clicking OK. Clicking on the Upload button opens a file browser that can be used to select the certificate file (usercert.p12).

When the certificate file is imported, SUI will ask for the certificate password. This is the password that has been assigned to the certificate in the TERENA certificate portal (not the certificate repository password or the CSC password). After providing the password, check the certificate information and click "Save". The certificate should then be visible as one row in the Stored Certificates table.

Once the certificate is stored to the My Certificates repository, it can easily be exported to the computer you are currently working by logging in to the service and using the Download command.

You can also use this command to store the certificate in PEM format to the .globus directory of the CSC server Taito. This is necessary to be able to submit grid jobs from Taito.

  1. Select the certificate from the list.

  2. Right-click and select:  Download

  3. Then select:
              Download Destination: 
    Globus directory ($HOME/.globus)
              File format: PEM

After entering the certificate password for the PEM certificate files, they will be stored to the .globus directory of your CSC home directory. This is the default location for the certificates that grid tools at CSC will use.

Figure 1. The My Certificates tool in the Scientists User Interface.

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