Support for Persistent Identifiers

A persistent identifier (PID) uniquely identifies a resource and is managed throughout its lifecycle. On the Internet persistent identifiers resolve to a website where the user can find a description of the resource. For example a PID identifying research data will take you to a website containing the descriptive metadata, i.e. information such as the title, creators, accessibility, date of issue or terms of use. PIDs locate the digital object even though in time its location might change. This solves the problem of link rot and disappearing of resources when websites are updated. PIDs are therefore essential for unambiguous citation of data and other publications.

PIDs can also be used to represent entities such as researchers or research infrastructures. There are different PIDs for various purposes and with various properties. In the context of linked data, persistent identifiers play a crucial role in ensuring the reliability of information systems. PIDs always require care and maintenance. Therefore you should make sure to choose the right identifier for the right purpose. 

CSC coordinates services for some of the most widely used PIDs presented below. For more information and support contact CSC Service Desk

More information for organizations for allocating and minting persistent identifiers.

DOI and DataCite

Some of the most commonly used persistent identifiers for research data and publications are DOI and URN. Unlike URN, DOI always requires and provides certain uniform minimal metadata describing the resource. It is therefore popular in publishing and citation practices of the research community.

CSC coordinates the Finnish DataCite consortium through which CSC can enable research organizations to allocate DOIs to research data. In order to do so, the organization has to become a member of the Finnish DataCite consortium. The membership fee is approximately 2000 euros, not depending on the amount of identifiers to be assigned, and membership requires a formal contract. Organizations are obliged to commit to appropriate data management and tending to the quality of metadata according to the DataCite guidelines. DOIs cannot be reassigned and resolution has to be managed persistently. If the resource is no longer available, a tombstone page has to be established. Life cycle of the data resource has to be documented in the metadata.

URN is a more flexible identifier. In Finland it is managed by the National Library. More information available at the National Library website. Persistent URN identifiers can also be assigned to research infrastructures. These identifiers are managed by the Finnish research infrastructures service where CSC is also one of the responsible organizations.

CSC is also a member of the ePIC consortium. ePIC manages the Handle identifiers used for example by EUDAT or Kielipankki - The Language Bank of Finland.

You can ask more by contacting


ORCID ( is an international registry of unique identifiers for researchers and scholars that is open, non-proprietary, transparent, mobile, and community-based. ORCID provides a persistent digital identifier that distinguishes every contributor from every other contributor and supports automated linkages among all professional activities.

ORCID is founded on interoperability with multiple systems and institutions. ORCID allows researchers and research organizations to link with other identifier systems, including those maintained by funders and publishers, and exchange data between research information systems. Through ORCID you can maintain all of your key research information in one place, and you control your own privacy settings, including what information is displayed publicly, what is shared only with trusted partners.

CSC coordinates Finland's national ORCID consortium. The consortium consists of thirteen research organizations and CSC. CSC also provides a national connect service which enables researchers to link their ORCID identifier to their research organization.

You can reach CSC's ORCID support team through email if you have any questions concerning the use of ORCID in Finland or if you wish inquire about membership in the consortium.

More Information