4.3 Using MPI

Message passing interface (MPI) is a flexible parallel programming paradigm, and it is the dominant method of parallelization codes in scientific computing. MPI is suitable for both distributed memory computers and shared memory architectures. In MPI, each task has an address space in memory that other tasks cannot directly access. When exchange of data is needed between tasks, the tasks send 'messages' to each other.

Intel MPI, MVAPICH2 and OpenMPI are available on Taito, however CSC does not provide support for OpenMPI. The Intel MPI is the default MPI library. The module commands below enable unloading Intel MPI and loading MVAPICH2.

module unload intelmpi
module load mvapich2

 

4.3.1 Compiling and linking MPI programs on Taito

There are compiler wrappers mpif90, mpicc and mpiCC for compiling Fortran, C and C++ MPI programs, respectively. These wrappers take care of compiler and linker directives for compiling MPI programs. Users do not need to specify include file locations, MPI libraries or their locations. For example, a MPI program (one source code file) written with the Fortran language ('my_mpi_prog.f95') is compiled and linked as:

mpif90 my_mpi_prog.f95 -o my_mpi_prog

To compile each of the source code files separately use -c flag. The example below will generate the object code files my_mpi_source1.o and my_mpi_source2.o.

mpif90 -c my_mpi_source1.f95
mpif90 -c my_mpi_source2.f95

These can be linked to an executable program (my_mpi_prog)

mpif90 my_mpi_source1.o my_mpi_source2.o -o my_mpi_prog

The -show option displays the actual compilation/linking command generated by the wrapper. For example, try:

mpif90 -show

 

4.3.2 Include files

In order to use MPI in your program, you need to include the MPI library in your source code by having one of the following lines.

For programs written in Fortran 77 use:

include 'mpif.h'

and for Fortran 90 or newer use:

use mpi

For programs written in C/C++ use:

#include "mpi.h"
Previous chapter     One level up     Next chapter