Papers related to Elmer 

Elmer has been used in more than two hundred scientific publications and tens of thesis works. As it has shown to be too laborious to follow all articles we give here just some relevant publications under different topics.

We would appreciate if you would choose suitable references when using Elmer in in your research. 

Generic reference:

  • M. Malinen and P. Råback, Elmer finite element solver for multiphysics and multiscale problems. In book: Multiscale Modelling Methods for Applications in Material Science, pages 101-113. Chapter: Elmer finite element solver for multiphysics and multiscale problems, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Editors: Ivan Kondov, Godehart Sutmann, 2013.

Elmer/Ice - Computational glaciology

  • Gagliardini, O., T. Zwinger, F. Gillet-Chaulet, G. Durand, L. Favier, B. de Fleurian, R. Greve, M. Malinen, C. Martín, P. Råback, J. Ruokolainen, M. Sacchettini, M. Schäfer, H. Seddik, and J. Thies, 2013. Capabilities and performance of Elmer/Ice, a new-generation ice sheet model, Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 1299-1318, doi:10.5194/gmd-6-1299-2013.

  • For a full list of Elmer/Ice related papers (>180 pages and counting!) see More than ten of these have been cited in report series of The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).


  • T. Gustafsson, P. Råback, and J. Videman, 2023. Mortaring for linear elasticity using mixed and stabilized finite elements, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Volume 404, 13 pages.
  • M. Malinen and P. Råback, The coupling of solids and shells by conjugate approximations, 2023. Rakenteiden Mekaniikka, 55(4), 95–115.
  • A. Ostaszewska-Liżewska, R. Szewczyk, P. Råback, and M. Malinen: Modelling the Characteristics of Ring-Shaped Magnetoelastic Force Sensor in Mohri’s Configuration. Sensors. 2020; 20(1):266.
  • J. Keränen, P. Ponomarev, J. Pippuri, P. Råback, M. Lyly, and J. Westerlund: Parallel Performance of Multi-Slice Finite-Element Modeling of Skewed Electrical Machines. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics 01/2017; PP(99):1-1., DOI:10.1109/TMAG.2017.2653421
  • J. Szałatkiewicz, R. Szewczyk, M. Kalinowski, J. Kataja, P. Råback, J. Ruokolainen, and M. Kachniarz: Open source ELMER software based FEM modeling of waveguides and resonant cavities for microwave heating and drying devices, Archives of Electrical Engineering. 12/2017; 66(4)., DOI:10.1515/aee-2017-0056
  • J. Keränen, J. Pippuri, M. Malinen, J. Ruokolainen, P. Råback, M. Lyly, and K. Tammi: Efficient Parallel 3-D Computation of Electrical Machines With Elmer. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics 03/2015; 51(3):1-4., DOI:10.1109/TMAG.2014.2356256
  • E. Takala, E. Yurtesen, J. Westerholm, J. Ruokolainen, and P. Råback: Parallel Simulations of Inductive Components with Elmer Finite-Element Software in Cluster Environments. Electromagnetics 04/2016; 36(3):167-185., DOI:10.1080/02726343.2016.1151616

EOF Library - Coupling with OpenFOAM 

  • J. Vencels, M. Birjukovs, J. Kataja, P. Råback: Microwave heating of water in a rectangular waveguide: Validating EOF-Library against COMSOL multiphysics and existing numerical studies. Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, Volume 15, November 2019, 100530.
  • J. Vencels, P. Råback, and V. Geža: EOF-Library: Open-source Elmer FEM and OpenFOAM coupler for electromagnetics and fluid dynamics. SoftwareX, Volume 9, January–June 2019, Pages 68-72.

Fluid-structure interaction

  • E. Järvinen, P. Råback, M. Lyly and J.-P. Salenius, A method for partitioned fluid-structure interaction computation of flow in arteries, Medical Engineering & Physics, 30 (2008), 917-923. doi:10.1016/j.medengphy.2007.12.008
  • Esko Järvinen, Mikko Lyly, Juha Ruokolainen, Peter Råback Three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction modeling of blood flow in elastic arteries , A paper presented in ECCOMAS CFD 2001, Swansea 4-7 September. pdf
  • Peter Råback, Juha Ruokolainen, Mikko Lyly, Esko Järvinen. Fluid-structure interaction boundary conditions by artificial compressibility , A paper presented in ECCOMAS CFD 2001, Swansea 4-7 September. pdf


  • M. Malinen, J. Ruokolainen, and P. Råback: The Parallel Solution of Discrete Linearized Navier–Stokes Equations in the Frequency Domain. Acta Acustica united with Acustica 01/2014; 100(1)., DOI:10.3813/AAA.918690
  • M. Malinen, Boundary conditions in the Schur complement preconditioning of dissipative acoustic equations, SIAM J. Sci. Comput. 29 (2007), 1567-1592.
  • M. Malinen, S. Järvenpää, A. Kärkkäinen, L. Kärkkäinen, P. Råback, E. Seppälä, P. Ylä-Oijala, A domain decomposition method for coupled equations of acoustic wave
    . In: Computational Methods for Coupled Problems in Science and Engineering II, E. Onate, M. Papadrakakis and B. Schrefler (eds.), CIMNE, Barcelona, 2007, pp. 566-569.
  • Mika Malinen, Mikko Lyly, Peter Råback, Asta Kärkkäinen and Leo Kärkkäinen, A finite element method for the modeling of thermo-visoucs effects in acoustics, A paper presented in ECCOMAS 2004, Jyväskylä, Finland, 24-28 June 2004, pdf.

MEMS and microfluidics

  • Bunker, A., Viitala, T., Liang, H., Gupta, M., Zwinger, T., and Yliperttula, M., (2012) Fluid dynamics modeling for synchronizing surface plasmon resonance and quartz crystal microbalance as tools for biomolecular and targeted drug delivery studies, Journal of Colloid & Interface Science, 378(1):251-259, DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2012.04.012 
  • T. Veijola and P. Råback: Methods for Solving Gas Damping Problems in Perforated Microstructures Using a 2D Finite-Element Solver. Sensors 07/2007; 7(7)., DOI:10.3390/s7071069
  • A. Pursula, P. Råback, S. Lähteenmäki and J. Lahdenperä, Coupled FEM simulations of accelerometers including nonlinear gas damping with comparison to measurements, J. Micromech. Microeng. 16 (2006), 2345-2354.
  • T. Veijola, A. Pursula and P. Råback, Extending the validity of squeezed-film damper models with elongations of surface dimensions, J. Micromech. Microeng. 15 (2005), 1624-1636.
  • P. Råback and A. Pursula, Finite element simulation of the electro-mechanical pull-in phenomenon A paper presented in ECCOMAS 2004, Jyväskylä, Finland, 24-28 June 2004, pdf.
  • A. Pursula and P. Råback, Efficient modeling method for damped micro-electro-mechanical resonators, A paper presented in ADMOS 2003, Göteborg, 29 Sep -1 Oct 2003, ps.
  • T. Sikanen, T. Zwinger, S. Tuomikoski, S. Franssila, R. Lehtiniemi, C.-M. Fager, T. Kotiaho and A. Pursula, Temperature modeling and measurement of an electrokinetic separation chip, Microfluid Nanofluid, 5:479-491, doi:10.1007/s10404-008-0260-1, SpringerLink
  • P. Råback, A. Pursula, V. Junttila, and T. Veijola, Hierarchial finite element simulation of perforated plates with arbitrary hole geometries, A paper presented in MSM 2003, San Francisco, 23-27 February, ps.

Crystal growth & phase change

  • A. Kunwar, B. Guo, S. Shang, P. Råback, Y. Wang, J. Chen, H. Ma, X. Song, and N. Zhao: Roles of interfacial heat transfer and relative solder height on segregated growth behavior of intermetallic compounds in Sn/Cu joints during furnace cooling. Intermetallics 02/2018; 93:186-196., DOI:10.1016/j.intermet.2017.11.021
  • A. Kunwar, S. Shengyan, P. Råback, Y. Wang, J. Givernaud, J. Chen, H. Ma, X. Song, N. Zhao: Heat and mass transfer effects of laser soldering on growth behavior of interfacial intermetallic compounds in Sn/Cu and Sn-3.5Ag0.5/Cu joints. Microelectronics Reliability 01/2018; 80., DOI:10.1016/j.microrel.2017.11.016
  • K. Schüller, J. Kowalski, and P. Råback: Curvilinear melting – A preliminary experimental and numerical study. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 01/2016; 92:884-892., DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2015.09.046.
  • M. Ulvrová, S. Labrosse, N- Coltice, P. Råback, and P. J. Tackley: Numerical modelling of convection interacting with a melting and solidification front: Application to the thermal evolution of the basal magma ocean. Physics of The Earth and Planetary Interiors 09/2012;, DOI:10.1016/j.pepi.2012.06.008
  • V. Savolainen, J. Heikonen, J. Ruokolainen, O. Anttila, M. Laakso and J. Paloheimo, Simulation of large-scale silicon melt flow in magnetic Czochralski growth, J. Crystal Growth 243 (2002), 243-260.


  • P. Jussila and J. Ruokolainen, Thermomechanics of porous media - II: thermo-hydro-mechanical model for compacted bentonite, Journal Transport in Porous Media, Volume 67, Number 2, 2007, 275-296. doi:10.1007/s11242-006-9026-y.
  • P. Jussila, Thermomechanics of Porous Media - I: Thermohydraulic Model for Compacted Bentonite, Transport in Porous Media, Volume 62, Number 1, January 2006 , 81-107.